Nordic Geography

Earlier, I read a comment from my sister-in-law, Aileen Adams. She wrote: Thank you for the map. It helps to put things in perpective.

I thought I could be more informative about Nordic geography, especially related to a recent trip which should produce a total of six weblog posts, in addition to this one. Four of those posts have already been published. This weblog post uses three maps. The map above shows Trøndelag county. Below is a political map showing some of the Nordic countries. In addition, at the end of the post there is a rail map.

Trondhjems Amt (Norwegian) = Trondhjem county (English) was created in 1687. In 1804 the county was split into Nord-Trøndelag and Sør-Trøndelag by the King of Denmark-Norway. Trondheim fjord provides some of the dividing line, with Stjørdal and Meråker being the most southerly counties in North Trøndelag. The western part of Trøndelag can be more difficult to understand, as Osen, Roan, Åfjord, Bjung, Ørland and the western half of Indre Fosen, previously called Rissa, were in South Trøndelag. From the eastern half of Indre Fosen, previously called Leksvik, we used to drive north into south Trøndelag! The counties were reunited in 2018 after a vote in the two counties in 2016. We live in Inderøy which is almost in the middle of the map. There is a sound = Skarnsund, between the letters d and e in the name. We live at the extreme south-east of that sound. Previously, the area west of that sound was its own municipality, Mosvik. The two municipalities merged on 2012-01-01.

Trøndelag (together with parts of Møre og Romsdal) was briefly ceded to Sweden in 1658 in the Treaty of Roskilde. It was returned to Denmark-Norway after the Treaty of Copenhagen in 1660. During that time, the Swedes conscripted 2 000 males in Trøndelag, including boys down to 15 years of age, to fight against Poland and Brandenburg. Only about one-third of the conscripts ever returned to their homes; some of them were forced to settle in the then Swedish Duchy of Estonia, as the Swedes thought it would be easier to rule the Trønders there.

Norden = the Nordic countries, is a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic. It consists of Denmark, Faroe Islands (Danish autonomous territory), Finland, Greenland (Danish autonomous territory), Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Åland (Finnish autonomous region). The map does not show either the Faroe Islands or Greenland. In my mind, the former Soviet, current Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania are increasingly associated with the Nordic countries.

The Shetlands, Orkneys, Hebrides and the Isle of Mann were once part of Norway. For example, the Vikings arrived in Shetland around 850 AD which resulted in about 600 years of Norse rule. This period shaped culture and traditions despite the transfer of the islands to Scotland in 1469. In 2020-09, the Shetland Islands Council voted to explore replacing the council with a new system of government which controls a fairer share of the islands revenue streams and has a greater influence over their own affairs, which could include lucrative oil fields and fishing waters. In 1967, 1986 and 2022, Orkney Islands Council voted for a motion to explore greater autonomy and Nordic connections.

Northern Scandinavia

Alasdair travelled via OSL Oslo airport Gardermoen while I travelled separately from Inderøy via TRD Trondheim airport Værnes to EVE Harstad/ Narvik airport, Evenes on Wednesday, 2024-05-08 to begin an exploration of northern Scandinavia. Alasdair flew on a Norwegian Airlines Boeing 737-800, while I took a Bombardier Q400 turboprop.

We stayed in Harstad the first night. A weblog post about the art of Harstad has been published. The next day we travelled by bus to Narvik, where we spent the next night, starting 2024-05-09. Again, a weblog post about the art of Narvik has been published. Both Harstad and Narvik can be found on the map, north of Bodø but south of Tromsø.

Originally, we had planned to take the train from Narvik to Kiruna on 2024-05-10, but due to a earlier train derailment, we had to use a bus for the first part of the journey. Since Norway, Sweden and Finland are among the 29 European countries to have signed the Schengen agreement, officially abolishing border controls at their mutual borders, we did not experience any border controls on our trip.

Kiruna was uncomfortably cold, but we enjoyed looking at the old and new towns. On 2024-05-11, we continued our train journey through Gällevare and Boden to Luleå. Those locations can also be found on the railway map, below.

We continued the train journey on 2024-05-12 to Haparanda in Sweden. We had to retrace part of our journey to Boden, then took a different rail line to Haparanda. The rail line is shown on the map, but Haparanda is not. Its sister city Torneo, on the Finnish side of the border, is. From there we bussed to Kemi, where we could once again take a train.

In the weblog post about Haparanda – Torneo – Kemi, the Merenkurkku (Finnish) = throat of the sea (literal translation) = Kvarken (Swedish) = Quark Ridge (English) a narrow region separating Bothnian Bay from the rest of the Bothnian Sea. Its approximate location can be found on the map between Vaasa in Finland, and Umeå in Sweden.

We continued our journey south to Oulu, where we spent the night. A weblog post about Oulu is being prepared. The following day (2024-05-13) we took a train from Oulu to Seinäjoki, where we changed trains. This second train took us to Vaasa. Another weblog post about Vaasa is also being prepared.

On tuesday, 2024-05-14, we took a bus to the VAA, the Vaasa airport. From there we flew on a SAS (Scandinavian Airlines Systems) Canadair Regional Jet 900 to ARN Stockholm airport Arlanda in Sweden. We then flew on a Airbus A220 jet onwards to TRD.

We were met at TRD by Trish and Buzz, who drove us back to Cliff Cottage in Inderøy. TRD is located in Stjørdal municipality, in the former north Trøndelag.

Faroe Islands

My son, Alasdair, and I arrived at the airport on Vágar, on Monday, 2023-07-10, for a short adventure that will last until Friday, 2023-07-14. After picking up our rental car, a Hyundai Kona diesel with manual transmission, we headed off towards the neighbouring island of Streymoy!

Unlike Iceland, which met us with desolation, we were met by fog which helped us suspend our judgement. We soon stopped at a food store, where we encountered three young workers who, true to tradition, complained about their elders. They were helpful, and we were able to purchase necessities for our domestic life.

We took the easy way out buying coffee that was already ground. The food store had a machine to grind coffee beans.

We then continued on to our accommodation at Kvivik, run by Petra Iversen. It was a comfortable basement suite, suitable for two people.

Domestic necessities

Healthy eating? Puffed wheat coated with honey and sugar, along with orange flavoured yoghurt.
Safely stored in a freezer, two varieties of ice cream chocolate and licorice.
We took the easy way out buying coffee that was already ground. The food store had a machine to grind coffee beans. Indeed, we later found that our hostess had a coffee bean grinder in her kitchen. This took me back to the early 1980s, when Trish worked at a coffee and tea store that ground coffee to the specifications of its clients.

Alasdair noted, correctly it turned out, that our accommodation had been outfitted by a woman. Appliances included a filter coffee maker and kettle, microwave oven, conventional oven, induction stove top, freezer and refrigerator, as well as a dishwasher and a battery operated, bagless vacuum cleaner. Dishes, plates, glasses, cups and flatware were found in abundance, in the cupboards. I especially liked her red, rubberized coffee cups. This place felt more like home, than any other place we had stayed in previously on this trip.

On Tuesday evening, we met our hostess, to pay for our accommodation. She had a coffee bean grinder in her kitchen. This took me back to the early 1980s, when Trish worked at a coffee and tea store in Molde that ground coffee to the specifications of its clients.

The coffee cup, turned upside down.
Tvis Køkken = kitchen, from Holstebro, Denmark.

On this trip I have decided that my role is to look at culture rather than nature. Thus, I was delighted to find two works of art from our accommodation that are included here for everyone’s enjoyment.

On our last evening, we were given a sample of Faroe cuisine, complete with whale blubber and mutton.

Faroe cuisine


On Monday, 2023-07-10 it was time to leave Iceland, and to head to the Faroe Islands. Excitement that morning consisted of an earthquake warning, followed almost immediately by a few earth-shaking moments that appeared to do no damage. We were up and showered before breakfast at 8:00, with a departure at 8:30, in order to return our rental car before the 10:30 deadline. The only problem was that our flight’s departure was delayed by four hours. So we had lots of time to explore the town of Keflavik.

A minor volcanic eruption had already begun as we drove across the Reykjanes Peninsula. We were told that no volcanic ash has been emitted, but noticed an unusual mist as we approached Keflavik Airport. Later, we learned there was a 200-meter long fissure on the slopes of the Litli Hrútur mountain, from which lava emerged as a series of lava fountains.

Unlike the day when we first rented our car, there were more staff than customers at the Budget/ Avis airport office. Alasdair reported the broken windshield, and paid the deductible for the damages. His travel insurance later refunded this amount.

We spent much of our time in Keflavik visiting a municipal park. Photos on our way there are shown below. There were many children in the park, and their activity of choice seemed to be standing in front of robotic lawn mowers, waiting for them to stop, then turn to avoid the human obstruction.

Later, we also walked into the business district, where we found a store that sold flags large enough for our flagpole, a typical souvenir for us. We were surprised to find that it was cheaper to buy an Icelandic flag in Norway, than in Iceland.

Necessities: Microwave communications tower, and water tower


Höfn is the Icelandic term for harbour. It is also a place in the south-east of Iceland, which has a model of the solar system. This weblog post is about this model. It is fairly accurate in terms of relative distance between solar system bodies, with the exception of the location of Pluto.

There are several characteristics to enjoy about a model like this. One of the most important is that it can be reproduced almost everywhere in the world. So, you too could create one, at a smaller scale in a room or garden, or at a larger scale across your county/ state/ province/ country. In this particular case, it is 2.8 km long. However, it could be any length desired. Then there is the data, with all sorts of interesting facts about the sun, and each planet. An example is the sun’s diameter in real life (1.4 million km = 1.4 Gm), and on the model (45 cm). The solar system model bodies are illustrated in two different ways. There is a photographic representation, as it would be seen through a telescope. There is a more naive representation, made by a pupil at the local school.

Not everyone is able to respond to scaled proportions appropriately. I remember one test to see if people understood the scale of the universe. Ask them if the moon or an elephant is larger. I thought it was a dumb question to ask, until one person seriously replied that an elephant is larger.

The Sun

The Sun





The Asteroid Belt






Weaknesses. I may criticize others for not knowing the true size of the moon. Yet, I have my own failings. No one would describe the photographs of the solar system information panels as professional. They were taken with a smart phone on a sunny day, which meant that because of my light sensitivity, I had to wear sunglasses while photographing them. Most of the time, I failed to capture the entire sign. Even when I did, it was not centred.

I explored the first part of the solar system, closest to the sun, with others, then went out on my own to explore the rest of it, some hours later. I was able to trace it, but unable to retrace the route back to our accommodation. I hadn’t recorded the accommodation address, so had no reference point to use on my smartphone map. Fortunately, I was able to give my location to Alasdair, who rescued me. It was totally undramatic. Yes, I may understand scale, but I don’t have a geographic sense of position, a fact well known to the others in my family.



Venturing into Seyðisfjörður involved about 20 km of driving in fog. While there, much of the fog lifted, so the return drive only involved about 10 km of fog over the 600 m high Fjarðarheiði mountain pass.

The area has a history dating back to the tenth century. It has also been the site of the world’s first modern industrialized whaling station, established in 1864. In 1906, the first telegraph cable connecting Iceland to Europe (and the world) made landfall here. In 1913, it was also the location of Iceland’s first high-voltage AC power plant, that included a hydroelectric dam. During World War II, it housed a British/ American military base.

While for most of the post-war period the economic focus was on fishing, today, it is tourism. the Icelandic port for the Smyril Line ferry M.S. Nörrona, built in 2003, that connects Iceland with Hirtshals, Denmark and Tórshavn, in the Faroe Islands.

The village was also a filming location for the Icelandic crime series, Trapped.

On 2020-12-18, the largest landslide in an Icelandic residential area hit, destroying thirteen houses and the Technical Museum of East Iceland! Many other buildings also suffered damage. Within hours, the entire village was evacuated.

Now, near the Smyril ferry terminal, a display explains the landslide in detail, especially the fate of individuals, complete with photographs by Katja Goljat and Matja Rust.

The Landslide Project

Yes, there are about 30 additional images and text like the previous two!

This photo shows where the landslide took place!


The traffic lights in Akureyri feature red hearts for stop. Pedestrian tourists like this, and comment on them waiting for the lights to change. As with most second-largest cities they have to do something, preferably positive, to shift the focus away from the largest city and onto themselves. Akureyri had a population of 19 219 in 2021, occupying 138 km2.

The Aviation Museum of Iceland is located in Akureyri. A Wikipedia article provides insights into the museum. This weblog post provides some photos!

Lots of planes…
… radio equipment …
… uniforms …
and a waiting hut!

In Akureyri, Fashionista Brock was also pressed into a photo shoot to show off his yellow glasses, in the yellow frame. Credits for the shoot are extensive.

Fashionista Brock appears courtesy of Happy Modelling Agency. Sweater, socks and toque courtesy of Thunderbird Design. Jacket by Haglofs. Chinos from Dressmann. Shoes by and from Allbirds. Yellow Kieth 2 glasses from Face A Face, Paris. Yellow frame coutesy Akureyri municipality. Photo by Charles Justice using an Asus Zenfone 9.


A Whale skeleton from the Húsavík Whale Museum Photo: Húsavík Whale Museum

It took almost a week to find it, but should fate necessitate a move from Inderøy to Iceland, I think I have found a location that would meet my needs, Húsavík. It is a village on the north coast, with a population of 2 307 people, its own airport, the oldest flock of free ranging sheep (from 874) and one of the best museums I have encountered in the world, the Whale Museum.

Of course, such a statement is based on first impressions. That is all one has on a road trip. There is no time to encounter places a second time. This encounter with the town almost didn’t happen. Driving from the outskirts of Akureyri, we visited the waterfall at Goðafoss. We then took the most direct route towards Húsavík, only to find the road blocked by highway crews, who couldn’t be bothered to move their truck from a bridge to allow other traffic to pass. This added an additional 30 km to the trip, which meant that we discussed missing Húsavík altogether.

Wikipedia reminds people that Húsavík served as the setting of the 2020 Netflix film Eurovision Song Contest: The Story of Fire Saga, a comedic story of two Húsavík natives representing Iceland in the Eurovision Song Contest, with one of the film’s songs named after the town. The song itself was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Song at the 93rd Academy Awards. Both of my children have commented positively about this film.

More on climate. There is no advantage to living at Húsavík during any other season. While we have grown used to winters in Norway, I could appreciate less cold weather and less snow. On a theoretical level, Madeira has appeal. However, unless other family members wanted to move there, it would not be an interesting place. As long as our daughter Shelagh and her husband Derek are living in California, it is more appealing to visit there. Canadian citizens are generally allowed to live up to six months each year in the United States. The most appealing months are November to February.


After eating dinner at a Macadonian run B & S Restaurant, we needed to walk off our meals, walking along the banks of the Blanda River in Blönduós, Iceland. We stopped to admire a modern building with a sod roof, and unusual siding.

We stopped to admire this wall and roof.

At the mouth of the river, we walked away from the river for a block. Then we walked along a street, one block from the river, on the way back. Here we encountered the Icelandic Textile Centre, a research institution, and the Icelandic Textile Museum. It was in the same building that we had appreciated previously.

Kitchen, at the Icelandic Textile Museum

The museum was officially opened at the centennial of Blönduós in 1976, and has been a private foundation since 1993. In 1976 the museum was in a small and narrow building, a former stable of the Women’s School (Kvennaskólinn) in Blönduós. Construction of a new building was started in 2001-10. It was designed by the architect Guðrún Jónsdóttir. It occupies about 250 m2, integrated with the old building. This new building was opened 2003-05-09.

I liked the modernist design of the Textile Museum, and felt that the architecture contrasted with the textiles. The underlying theme of all exhibitions at the museum is the Þráður = thread. The thread is the basis for all textile crafts and connects the past with the present, and the future.

Halldóra Bjarnadóttir (1873-1981), made significant contributions to the museum. She was employed by the National Farmers Union in Iceland and published the „Hlín” magazine for 44 years. Moreover, she founded and operated the Wool- and Textile College at Svalbarði in South-Þingeyjarsýsla. Halldóra dedicated herself to the social and educational affairs of women and was an eager representative of their culture. She collected varieties of weaving and knit patterns as well as many types of small objects related to wool- and textile processing. Many sources point out that she never married, and did not have children.

I had an interesting conversation with a young woman employee at the museum. She explained that Icelandic national costumes are not owned by any individual, but by a family. One person, usually an older woman, is usually responsible for the garment(s). It is considered an honour to have this position. People may ask to wear one or more parts or all of a national costume for various events.

I asked her about male costumes. She could show me photographs, but not the garments. They were not well enough kept to put on display, she said.

Wall hanging

A life in Blönduós would offer people an opportunity to pursue the study of (Icelandic) textiles in depth, and an opportunity to meet others with the same interest.


This artwork decorates the common room of Baron’s Hostel. This represents the Beatniks of the late 1950s. The undated artwork is signed by Hugo Forte.

Do I enjoy travelling? The answer has to be no, especially when it involves class Y (economy) travel in cramped seats on airliners. Once I actually get to a destination things are fine, as long as everything is identical to the way it is in Inderøy. This sentence is being written at precisely the minute I eat breakfast in Norway 09:00. Except, I am in Reykjavik, Iceland, and the time is 07:00. Two hours difference. It must be summer. One hour difference, in winter, because Iceland is smart enough to avoid time changes twice a year.

Travel used to be fun, opening my mind to new experiences and ways of doing things. As I approach another milestone in my life (3/4 of a century in four months) I note how closed I am to appreciating new experiences.


On the bus trip from KEF airport to downtown Reykjavik, I wondered how my mental health would survive the trip. The landscape could be described in one word, desolate. I am used to forests and hills and a fjord. I do not think that I would ever choose to move away from those elements. Iceland is largely treeless. I need trees to thrive. Because Iceland is more appreciated for its natural beauty, most people write, photograph, draw and paint the natural landscape. This weblog post is going to be the exception. It is going to concentrate on the low culture of Reykjavik.

Baron’s Hostel

Alasdair and I are stayed for four nights at Baron’s hostel, for the price of staying at a well equipped large, twin bed room with bath at a hotel in Norway, we were offered bunk beds without any opportunity to sit in the room, with a shared bath.

The building itself gives off severe vibrations. It was an orphanage, as well as a medical centre, in a previous incarnation. Today, there are two hostels vying for attention. B47 attracting upmarket hostel users occupies the first to third floors, while Baron’s, occupies the fourth and fifth floors. It attracts other, lesser souls. Asking a 50ish woman from Oregon what she was doing at Baron’s, she quickly answered: slumming. Her answer resonated. We met many others in the same age group, some older: A man with parents in North Vancouver, currently living in Chicago, working on his PhD in creative writing, and heading off to a writing retreat; an American musician; an entire theatre troop from Perth, Australia, with a parody of Dizney; a Polish marketing specialist who explained that the economy was booming in Poland, with the lowest unemployment rates ever.

The artwork at the top of this post, signed by Hugo Forte, dominates the common room of the Baron’s Hostel. This obviously represents the Beatniks of the late 1950s. By the mid 1960s, bell-bottom trousers had replaced the slender ankle trousers.

The Lebowski Bar

The Lebowski Bar is a typical low culture place to eat. The Lebowski (cheeseburger) and the Walker (bacon burger) tasted good. At first I found the music obnoxious, but decided to put that petty concern aside, and to listen to it as if I had chosen it myself. One track, especially, attracted my attention positively. Alasdair, using Shazam, the music discovery app, was able to tell me it was Going Nowhere, by Toma. At the hostel, I was able to listen to it again on YouTube. It was part of an album, Aroma, self-released using the name Tangible Animal Records on 2017-03-31. The day before, 2017-03-30, it had been uploaded onto YouTube by Distrokid. In the 6.25 years/ 75 months/ 2282 days since then, it had been listened to 1 042 times. I became the second subscriber of Toma’s music, and am sure I will listen to their other eight tracks made available. Toma is a four-piece band from Austin, Texas. Band members are: Waldo Wittenmeyer (keyboards/vocals), Jake Hiebert (drums), Neil Byers (bass), and Willy Jay (guitar/vocals).


Alasdair McLellan at the Reykjavik Maritime Museum

The first major museum that we visited was the Reykjavik Maritime Museum. It explained the role of people with ships, especially in modern Iceland, especially with respect to fishing.

There are so many museums in the Reykjavik area, that we could not afford the time to visit all of them. One of the first not visited, was the Museum of Icelandic Punk/ Pünk/ Punx. Asked what distinguishes this type of music from Rock, I was forced to invent a suitable answer: There is no difference musically, for both encompass a wide range. It is an ethos rather than an aesthetic. Despite this, a notable feature of Punk musicians is their clothing/ fashion/ uniforms that in some way show a disregard for social conventions. It was exemplified by the Sex Pistols lead singer, Johnny Rotten (born John Lydon, 1956 – ), who wore safety pins as earrings. Yet, the safety pins were not merely decorative, they codified punk, but were also practical, holding together clothing including Elizabeth Hurley’s (1965 – ) THAT dress in 1994, and to affix patches to the backs of jackets since the mid 1970s.


One may wonder why Hallgrim’s Church, a landmark in Reykjavik, is included in low culture. The petty reason is that its height of 74.5 m was not chosen for design purposes, or even the glorification of God, but to ensure that this parish church was taller than Landakot’s Church, the Catholic Cathedral in Iceland. Construction of the church was a slow process. It took 41 years from 1945 to 1986 for it to be constructed. The crypt beneath the choir was consecrated in 1948, the steeple and wings were completed in 1974, and the nave – used by ordinary parishioners – was consecrated in 1986.

The Grand Mosque of Iceland. Photo: Alasdair McLellan.

The same day we visited Hallgrim’s Church, we also visited The Grand Mosque of Iceland, a more modest building, open to the public, but not attempting to profit from visitors. The visit was a much more rewarding and spiritual experience.

Trøndelag Commuter Rail

The new FLIRT train at Stjørdal Station, 2021-08-31. Photo: Kolbkorr

On 2021-08-31, Adressavisen, Trøndelags largest newspaper, was itself divided. Its translated headline read: “These trains are called both a scandal and an improvement even before they have carried a single passenger[.] Scandal or success? It all depends on who you ask. Here’s what you need to know about the controversial hybrid trains[.]”

This was the day when Norwegian Minister of Transport Knut Arild Hareide (Christian People’s Party) cut the ribbon to welcome the new trains that will serve on the Trøndelag Commuter Rail line, at Trondheim Central Station. With him was Lena Angela Nesteby, the Acting CEO of SJ Norge = SJ Norway, operator of the line.

Notably absent was Trøndelag County mayor Tore O. Sandvik (Labour Party), who was also invited to experience the new hybrid train, but declined. Instead, he comments: “This is the biggest political belly flop in Norwegian railway history”.

He believes that instead of eating cake, explaining away, procrastinating and purchasing trains that few others use, one should have first electrified the entire Trøndelag Commuter Rail line, as the governing parties guaranteed in their election promises in 2017. Then, in 2018, after seven years of planning, when the budget was expected to fund implementation, there was no money for electrification (except a minor amount for yet more unnecessary planning!)

As will be seen under policy, further down in this post, the extent of the Trøndelag Commuter Rail line is not always easy to ascertain. Some regard everything north of Trondheim as part of the Northland Rail line, and everything south as either part of the Dovre Rail line or the Røros Rail line. However, most people in Trøndelag regard the Trøndelag Commuter Rail line, as the regional train line stretching from Steinkjer (north of Inderøy) to Trondheim (22 stops further south), or Lerkendal (the most common end-point, just south of Trondheim city centre, with 3 additional stops). Some would even extend it to Støren (considerably further south of Trondheim, with 8 additional stops after Lerkendal, which is also the maintenance centre for the trains. The rail connection also continues on to Røros, to make a 4.5 hour trip along 290 km of track. Wikipedia has further details about the line.

For the past few years, improvements have been made to the rail infrastructure in Trøndelag. Platforms throughout the line have been extended to a length of 120 m, with a platform height of 76 cm above top of rail (ATR). Notably absent is electrification. This is much more difficult and time consuming to implement. Bridges can make implementation difficult, especially if the bridges are old, and were never expected to be electrified.

The new train sets reflect this lack of electrification. These are Stadler FLIRT ( Flinker Leichter Intercity- und Regional-Triebzug = Fast Light Intercity and Regional Train) made in Switzerland by Stadler Rail. These are bi-mode, hybrid electric multiple unit articulated train sets that will have six cars permanently attached, with a length of 112.7 m. The maximum speed is 200 km/h. Floor height is 78 cm (some sources say 80 cm) suitable for the specified platform heights, which is the new standard platform height in Norway. These are referred to as type 76. On other Norwegian lines, train sets without PowerPack cars have been in use since 2012. These are referred to as Type 74 when used as regional trains with 2 + 2 seating. Local trains with an overweight of cramped 2 + 3 seating are identified as type 75. In total 14 type 76 train sets, each seating 241 passengers with 2 + 2 seating, are in the process of being delivered to Trøndelag Commuter Rail.

The PowerPack car, is an additional one-third length non-passenger car inserted in the train set with diesel engines generating electricity, allowing the train to run “off-wire”. It has a gangway through the centre to allow passengers to pass between the two parts of the train. This is a needless expense. Our family expert on rail transportation said that about 1 billion (or 20%) of the 5.5 billion NOK investment in these 14 train sets, will go to the PowerPack cars, and their control. These will not be needed at all in about four years time. The existing BM92 units could have served an additional four years and/ or the electrification of the line could have started earlier.

The cars are equipped with Jakobs bogies, named after the German railway engineer, Wilhelm Jakobs (1858–1942). It is a bogie that connects two cars. In Norway, the Jakobs bogie is used on other Flirt trains. Another notable user is the French TGVs made by Alstom.

The Jakobs bogie has the following advantages: It stiffens the train set so it is less prone to folding like an accordion during a derailment. At high speeds this is very dangerous. It happened at the Eschede derailment, the worst high-speed train crash ever, on 1998-06-03. Yet, TGV trains have several times derailed at high speed, 290-300 km/h, and still remained standing in the tracks – something the Jakobs bogies have probably contributed to. Therefore, the derailments have not claimed lives or caused serious injuries; The trains are lighter with only one bogie per. wagon instead of two. This is the case even though the increasing load on each bogie means that the cars have to be made somewhat shorter; Trains become cheaper with fewer bogies, as bogies are complicated and expensive; The wheel noise, which makes up a large part of the noise from a train, is reduced with fewer bogies. Inside, the wheel noise is also most noticeable in the transition between the cars, where people do not tend to stay. A disadvantage of Jakobs bogies is that it is usually impossible or, at best, time-consuming to add or remove cars. This must be done in a workshop. One practical approach is to connect two or more train sets.

Type 92
The BM92 trains are being replaced. This shows the typical two-car set stopped at Hommelvik Station in Malvik municipality, on 2008-06-28. Note that access to the train involves four steps. The steps all have variable width. At the front of the train, the width is greater at the front than the back. This makes it extremely difficult to bring anything wheeled, such as a wheelchair or pram, onto the train. Photo: Alasdair McLellan.

NSB Type 92 is a class of 15 diesel multiple units built by the former German train manufacturer Duewag, later to become part of Siemens. The two-car train-sets were delivered in 1984 and 1985, and were refurbished in 2005 and 2006. Each set seats 168 people, is 49.45 meters long and weighs 92 tonnes. The front car is powered with two electric motors, giving a power output of 714 kW and a maximum speed of 140 km/h. The cars are totally unsuited for use by anyone with mobility issues. Access to the train involves four steps. The steps all have variable width and are located at the ends of each car. This means the width is greater towards the end than towards the middle. This makes it extremely difficult to bring anything wheeled onboard, such as a wheelchair or pram. One of the train-sets was destroyed in an accident at Åsta that claimed 19 lives on 2000-01-04, leaving 14 sets.


Norway, Norges Statsbaner (NSB) = Norwegian State Railways was founded in 1883. In 1996, it was split into three separate governmental agencies. The ownership, maintenance and construction of track was transformed to the newly created government agency Norwegian National Rail Administration, while a new Norwegian Railway Inspectorate was created to supervise all railway operations in the country. NSB was renamed NSB BA and created as a limited company, wholly owned by the Ministry of Transport and Communications. This was followed by a number of rebranding efforts. The latest of which was in 2019 when NSB was renamed Vygruppen and rebranded as Vy. The name change was supported by 7% of Norwegians.

Norway decided to set its train routes out to tender, as encouraged by the European Union. Traffic Package 1 covered the south, 2 the north, 3 the west. There should have been a Traffic Package 4 covering the east of Norway. This package was large and comprehensive. After the first three packages showed that Vy was not competitive, this fourth package was cancelled. So much for the virtue of competition.

Details: This paragraph can be skipped by anyone with a life. Traffic Package 1: South. Long distrance trains (including night-trains, Sørlandsbanen: Oslo S – Kristiansand – Stavanger; Jærbanen; Lokal trains in Stavanger – Egersund; Arendalsbanen: Regional trains Arendal – Nelaug. Package 2: North is described further down in more detail. Package 3: West. Bergensbanen has the greatest traffic. A large proportion of traffic is tourist and leisure travel. Flåmsbanen is not covered by traffic package 3. Traffic Package 4: East, that included local trains Spikkestad /Asker – Lillestrøm og Stabekk/Oslo S – Ski; Regional trains: Oslo S – Ski, Stabekk – Moss, Oslo S – Mysen/Rakkestad and Oslo S – Hakadal/Jaren along with the Regional express trains Oslo S – Halden og Oslo S – Gjøvik. Flytoget the airport train from south of Oslo to Oslo Airport, Gardermoen, to the north.

In Sweden. Statens Järnvägar (SJ) = (Swedish) State Railways, existed from 1888. It was disbanded in 2001, with the assets transferred to seven separate companies, the first three owned by the Swedish government and the latter four being privatized. SJ AB is one of these Swedish state-owned companies, and it is the largest train operator in the Nordic region and the only one who operates trains between Scandinavia’s three capitals (Stockholm, Copenhagen and Oslo).

SJ Norge won the competition to operate trains in the north of Norway, as this map shows. Map: SJ Norge.

SJ Norge AS is owned by SJ AB, and in 2019-06 they were awarded traffic package 2 North, by the Norwegian Ministry of Transport and Communications, effective 2020-06-08. They are using the brand name SJ Nord = North. The contract period lasts until December 2030. SJ Nord operates seven train routes in Norway based on this package. The longest stretches are the Nordlandsbanen, which runs between Bodø and Trondheim, and the Dovrebanen, which runs between Trondheim and Oslo. The package also includes the Raumabanen, between Dombås and Åndalsnes, and the Rørosbanen, from Røros to Hamar, with connections north to Trondheim and south to Oslo.

Saltenpendelen is a local train connecting Bodø, Fauske and Rognan. Trønderbanen, which is the topic of this weblog post, officially runs between Steinkjer and Melhus via Trondheim. While Meråkerbanen, which SJ refers to as “the neighbour train” connects Trondheim to the Swedish cities of Åre and Östersund, via Storlien. In addition, SJ Nord offers bus travel to cities such as Tromsø, Narvik, Namsos, Ålesund, Kristiansund and Molde.